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Discuss your country

Next week is Remembrance Day, when we think about the people who served the country in times of war. If you look back in your family tree you might find someone who fought in a war maybe a long time ago or maybe more recently. Sarah had a look at the experiences of her grandfather and found out what Remembrance Day is all about.

Ask your partner what their country does to remember soldiers who died. Compare with your own country.

Grammatical Tenses for Letter Writing

Dorothy Darling, Well, we are spending ? our first day off duty today and I 'm taking ? the opportunity to write a few lines. We have been working ? a lot of overtime the last few days in fact it has been ? almost midnight by the time we get to bed. Anyway, I hope our efforts will help end this war quicker.

What do you notice about the tense used in letter writing?

Past Tenses

This is an excerpt from the transcript. It tells the story of how the First World War started in Europe. There is a mixture of past tenses. Can you guess which ones are correct? Try the activity where you have a different text from your partner. Read to each other to find the differences, and then listen for the answer.

01:40.2-01:53.5 The date marks the end of the First World War: a devastating global conflict that cost more than 30 million lives. Its beginnings were complicated.

01:53.5-02:03.0At the start of last century European countries had built up a series of alliances with each other. These ones were all on one side. These ones were on the other.

02:03.0-02:14.3So when the Austro-Hungarian Empire declared war on Serbia in 1914 the countries' allies came to help and a small war became a world war.

02:14.3-02:23.5Back then Australia was still a member of the British Empire and many young Aussies were keen to sign up and serve their king and country.

02:23.5-02:29.2 Many battles were fought in trenches. It was gruelling and deadly.

02:29.2-02:48.1 But by 1918 Australia's allies had begun to get the upper hand. On the 11th of November, 1918, leaders of the European countries came together and signed an armistice - an agreement to end the war. By 11.00 the war was over.

02:48.1-02:58.8 That day was known as Armistice Day and it was celebrated every year in the countries which helped to win the war. Later it became known as Remembrance Day.

02:58.8-03:06.4 More than 60,000 Australians were killed in the First World War. In a country with a population of less than a million that was devastating.

03:06.4-03:16.2 In fact the First World War was so terrible that many around the world thought it could never happen again. That's why they called it the Great War - the war to end all wars.

03:16.2-03:26.9 But it wasn't. Just 20 years later the world was at war again; this time against Nazi Germany and its allies.

03:26.9-03:38.3 Australia found itself fighting not just for its allies, but to defend its own borders. And when peace came at last we again promised never to forget.

Synonyms

Listen carefully to find the words that have been changed to synonyms.

01:40.2-01:53.5 The date marks the conclusion of the First World War: a devastating global conflict that cost over 30 million lives. Its beginnings were complicated.

01:53.5-02:03.0 At the start of last century European countries had created a series of partnerships with each other. These ones were all on one side. These ones were on the other.

02:03.0-02:14.3 So when the Austro-Hungarian Empire declared war on Serbia in 1914 the countries' allies came to assist and a small war became a world war.

02:14.3-02:23.5 Back then Australia was still a member of the British Empire and a lot of young Aussies were keen to sign up and serve their king and country.

02:23.5-02:29.2 Numerous battles were fought in trenches. It was gruelling and deadly.

02:29.2-02:48.1 But by 1918 Australia's allies had started to get the upper hand. On the 11th of November, 1918, leaders of the European countries met and signed an cease fire - an agreement to end the war. By 11.00 the war was over.

02:48.1-02:58.8 That day was called Armistice Day and it was celebrated every year in the nations which helped to win the war. Subsequently it became known as Remembrance Day.

02:58.8-03:06.4 More than 60,000 Australians died in the First World War. In a country with a population of under a million that was devastating.

03:06.4-03:16.2 In fact the First World War was so awful that many around the world thought it could never occur again. That's why they named it the Great War - the war to end all wars.

03:16.2-03:26.9 But it wasn't. Only 20 years later the world was at war once more; this time against Nazi Germany and its allies.

03:26.9-03:38.3 Australia found itself fighting not only for its allies, but to protect its own borders. And when peace came finally we again promised never to forget.

What's her role or job? How do you think she got her name?

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